After a woman has a first miscarriage she is often devastated, but regroups quickly and is ready to try again. However, if a miscarriage occurs a second time, or even a third or more the woman may begin to feel desperate and want to know what is going on with her body. Fortunately, there are tests that can be performed to help determine why miscarriages are occurring.
Once upon a time women were referred for testing after they had experienced three losses or more. However, today women are often referred for testing after two losses. There are several reasons for this. First of all, studies show that women who experience two losses or more have an increased risk of another miscarriage by 26 40%. So, women who have had two miscarriages should have some tests done to find out why they are miscarrying and in order not to increase their miscarriage odds. It is also better on the couple emotionally and financially to find out what is going on earlier rather than later.
Some common tests that are performed after a woman has had two losses include tests for rubella, HIV, HEP, chlamydia, gonorrhea, toxoplasmosis, CMV, syphilis, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, and more. Many of these infections or diseases could cause a woman to miscarry and most of them can be treated. If all of these tests come back negative then the woman will undergo further treatments.
There are autoimmune disorders that can cause multiple miscarriages. Women will be tested for Lupus, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and anti-phosphlipid antibodies. A thyroid panel may also be required as well as chromosomal testing on the miscarried tissues. Many times miscarriages occur because of random chromosomal abnormalities, but if the miscarried tissue is tested the parents need to be tested as well to see if there is any link.
Other tests that may be performed include ultrasounds, hysteroscopy, laparascopy, among others including an endometrial biopsy, serum progesterone level, glucose levels, and more. Not all of these tests will be ordered at once, but rather you will begin with one set of tests and keep taking different tests until some reason is narrowed down.
Keep in mind this testing can be very expensive and you should check with your insurance company to see what is covered before you begin the process. Remember as well that with all this technology doctors can frequently pinpoint the problem and help the woman become pregnant.